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Smith Masterpiece Cakeshop v. The rationale for excluding gays and lesbians from serving in the military is often rooted in cultural norms and values and has changed over time. In the US army , six states Texas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and West Virginia initially refused [ needs update ] to comply with Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel's order that gay spouses of National Guard members be given the same federal marriage benefits as heterosexual spouses, forcing couples to travel hours round trip to the nearest federal installation. By the s, a gay servicemember who had not committed any homosexual acts while in service generally received a general discharge, while those found to have engaged in homosexual conduct more often received undesirable discharges. LGBT rights in Russia. Before , homosexual acts between consenting males were against the law in Russia,  and homosexuality was considered a mental disorder until adoption of ICD in ,  but even after that military medical expertise statute was in force to continue considering homosexuality a mental disorder which was a reason to deny homosexuals to serve in the military.